Why Pray the Lord’s Prayer?

 

In the tradition of the Churches of Christ it is not common for us to pray the Lord’s Prayer either individually or communally.  I want to encourage us, however, to reconsider the practice.

The Lord’s Prayer Allows Jesus to Teach Us to Pray
Beginners may not now what to pray.  Praying the Lord’s Prayer relieves the pressure of having to come up with the words.  The words have been given to us as a gift.  Beginners need only pray the words of scripture and they have the assurance that Jesus will be pleased. “This the Lord’s Prayer is a great advantage indeed over all other prayers that we might compose ourselves. For in our own prayers the conscience would ever be in doubt and say, ‘I have prayed, but who knows if it pleased Him or whether I have hit upon the right proportions and form?'”1

This prayer, however, is not just for the beginner.  The disciples were all of them Jews.  As such, they would have been in the habit of praying daily.2  Still, they come to Jesus and ask him to teach them to pray (Luke 11:1ff).  Their request to Jesus does not indicate that they did not know how to pray.  Rather, they wanted to learn to pray like Jesus prayed.

It would be a mistake if we thought that Jesus intended them to pray only “in the spirit” of his prayer instead of the very words that he gave them.  We cannot merely do something “in the spirit” of another and expect the same result.  Form can rarely (if ever) be divorced from content.  Dallas Willard relates this story.  “Some time back my wife and I visited the haunts of St. Francis of Assisi.  I noticed that the people there in charge of his remembrances were not doing the things that he did.  They did what we might call acts ‘symbolic’ of Francis, but not what he did.  How odd!  It is not odd, however, that they fail to have his inner life and his outer effects.”3 When we pray the very prayer that Jesus granted us as a gift, we are doing his acts after him. Works which are merely “symbolic” of Jesus will not have the same effect. We pray this prayer because it is his gift to us, and so we learn to be like him.

Further, the Lord’s Prayer encompasses all others.  When Augustine of Hippo reflected upon this prayer he remarked, “Run through all the words of the holy prayers, and I do not think that you will find anything in them that is not contained and included in the Lord’s Prayer.”4

It Helps to Form the Habit of Prayer
Martin Luther took the fact that we are to pray for our “daily” bread as an indication that we ought to pray this prayer daily.5 The Didache, a kind of ancient catechism (2nd century) commands to pray it thrice daily.6 Praying the prayer verbatim will help to establish prayer as a habit. This is exceptionally important because whereas prayer ought to be the habit of the Christian “experience teaches us that it is a habit easily broken.”7

Some may object to the repetition citing Jesus’ condemnation of “vain repetitions” (Mat. 6:7). First, it should be noted that the rest of the verse gives Jesus’ meaning. Pagans use “vain repetitions” because “they think that they will be heard because of their many words.” That is, the pagan prayers could be long because they thought that they were thereby meriting their gods’ attention. The prophets of Baal, for example, cried to him from morning until noon attempting to get his attention (2 Kings 18:26). The Christian need not pray such long prayers because “your Father knows what you need before you ask him” (Mat. 6:8). Second, repetition is not inherently vain. Ask any athlete how many times he has practiced his golf swing or jump shot, or how many laps she has run around the track or how many laps she has swam around the pool. They would all admit to having repeated those exercises over and over again. But they would not consider any one of those laps or any of those golf swings to have been in vain. The repetition formed them into the people they have become. This is what the repetition of the prayer does for us. So Luther rightly says, “While mindless and unthinking repetition presents a problem, repeating the same prayer throughout one’s life does not.”8

It is a Means of Discipleship
First, it teaches us how to order our loves. Thomas Aquinas said, “The Lord’s Prayer is the most perfect of prayers … In it we ask, not only for all the things we can rightly desire, but also in the sequence that they should be desired.”9 As we said previously, the form cannot be separated from the content. The very fact that the prayer begins and ends with God teaches us that he is the Alpha and the Omega, the beginning and the end. Our lives are from him, through him, and to him. We do not, we cannot, stand upon our own, nor can this prayer. Like bookends on each side God holds up our personal petitions which are found in the middle. This is itself necessary instruction. “‘Deliver us from evil’ comes last. We tend to put it first. The child puts it first; his first prayer is usually, ‘God help me!’ This is a perfectly good prayer, and even the greatest saints never outgrow it; but they outgrow putting it first.”10

Second, the Lord’s Prayer teaches us how to obey the Greatest Commands, to love God and our neighbors. “The structure of this prayer is parallel to the structure of the Ten Commandments because both follow the structure of reality. Both are divided into two parts: God first, man second. And both are concerned above all with love. The first three commandments tell us how to love God, and the last seven how to love our neighbor. The first three petitions of the Lord’s Prayer also tell us how to love God: how to adore and worship and praise him. The other four tell us how to love our neighbor, since they tell us to pray for ‘our’ primary needs, not just ‘my’ needs. Intercessory prayer has no separate petition here because the whole second half of the prayer is equally for neighbor and for self.”11 While we may not involve ourselves in corporate worship every day, we pray this prayer and so express our love for God. This fulfills the greatest command. While we may not be able to feed and clothe the poor everyday, we can and should pray for his need. This a way of fulfilling the second greatest command. “My prayers, ascending like mist today, will descend like rain at another time and place, wherever God directs it, where thirsty soil needs it. My prayers can help feed souls far removed from me in space and time, just as truly as my work or money can help feed their bodies.”12

Third, it teaches me to trust God. In it I trust God to know my daily needs better than I do. “It gives God a ‘blank check’–‘our daily bread’ means ‘whatever you see we really need … So when we do not get what we ask for, we know that that is not our ‘daily bread’, not what we need this day. Either God or we are mistaken about what we need. Which is most likely?”13 So we learn to trust that God is better able to distinguish between our wants and needs than we are. If we find than we have less than we asked for then we learn that we needed less than we asked.

Fourth, it teaches me to forgive. The significance of the petition in regard to forgiveness is that both halves are connected by the word “as.” We beg God would forgive us “as” we forgive others. “If we think carefully about it, we realize that Christ is commanding us to pray for our own damnation if we do not forgive all the sins of all who sin against us.”14

Fifth, it teaches me to confess my weakness and my constant dependence upon God’s strength. When we pray that God would not lead us into temptation, we do not mean that he would not tempt us to sin. God never does that (cf. James 1:13). Rather, we mean that God would not lead us into trials. “It would be arrogant to ask God for trials, thinking we are strong enough to endure them. It is God’s business, not ours, to decide each person’s quantity of trials. It is our business to avoid them when possible and endure them in faith when it is not. Even Christ asked, ‘Father, if it be possible, let this cup [of suffering] pass from me.’ Only then did he add, ‘If this cannot pass unless I drink it, your will be done.’ (Mt 26:39, 42). We are not to pretend to be stronger or holier than Christ!”15

It is Powerful
James reminds us that “the fervent prayer of a righteous man is powerful in its working” (5:16). Alfred Lord Tennyson famously said, “More things are wrought by prayer than this world dreams of.” As such, we should not neglect the prayer which sums up the whole of the Christian life when we have confidence in its power, or, more precisely, when we have confidence in the God who has promised to answer.

“[T]he Lord’s Prayer, if honestly meant, is sacramental: it effects what it signifies. When we say ‘Our Father’, this faith ratifies our sonship (Rom 8:15-16). When we pray ‘Hallowed be thy name’, we are by that act actually hallowing it. When we pray ‘Thy kingdom come’, we are making it come, since the kingdom exists first of all in the praying heart. When we pray ‘Thy will be done’, the very desire is its own fulfillment, for that is his will: that we pray and mean ‘Thy will be done.’ When we pray, ‘Give us this day our daily bread’, we are already receiving our daily bread, the food of our souls, which is prayer. When we pray ‘Forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us’, we are forgiving others, for we are praying for our own damnation if we are not. When we pray, ‘Lead us not into temptation’, we are escaping temptation by placing ourselves in the presence of God. And when we pray, ‘Deliver us from evil’, we are effecting that deliverance by holding up our sins and our needs into the burning light of God, against which no darkness can stand.”16

 

©M. Benfield, 2017


1. Martin Luther, Large Catechism, (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing, 2010), 101.
2. Traditionally they prayed three times a day. An explanation of the tradition can be found here: http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/682091/jewish/The-Three-Daily-Prayers.htm .
3. Dallas Willard, Renovation of the Heart: Putting on the Character of Christ, (Colorado Springs: NavPress, 2012), 115.
4. St. Augustine of Hippo, as quoted in “Catholic Christianity” by Peter Kreeft, (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 2001), 391.
5. Luther, 101.
6. Alexander Roberts & James Donaldson eds., Anti-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 7, “The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles”, (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2004), VIII.3.
7. Luther, 97.
8. Ibid.
9. St. Thomas Aquinas, as quoted in “Catholic Christianity” by Peter Kreeft, 391.
10. Kreeft, 401.
11. Ibid, 395.
12. Ibid, 392.
13. Ibid, 397-398.
14. Ibid, 399.
15. Ibid, 400.
16. Ibid, 402-403.

You Shall Have No Other Gods Before Me

 

 

The exposition of the Decalogue in Martin Luther’s Large Catechism gives much attention to the first commandment: “I am the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery; you shall have no other gods before me” (Ex. 20:2, 3).  He does so because, he says, “where the heart is rightly set toward God … and this commandment is observed, all other commandments follow.”1 He points to the heart and then adds to the affection of the heart the conception of the mind. “It is most important that people get their thinking straight first. For where the head is right, the whole life must be right, and vice versa.”2

What Does It Mean to Have a God?
So, we proceed by way of Luther to ask of the first commandment, as he does, “What does it mean to have a god? Or, what is God? Answer: a god means that from which we are to expect all good and in which we are to take refuge in all distress. So, to have a God is nothing other than trusting and believing Him with the heart. I have often said that the confidence and faith of the heart alone make both God and an idol … Now, I say that whatever you set your heart on and put your trust in is truly your god.”3 Later he puts it this way, “Everyone has set up as his special god whatever he looked to for blessings, help, and comfort.”4 He also notes the etymological relationship in German (which exists also in English) between the words “God” and “good”, saying, “So, I think, we Germans from ancient times name God (more elegantly and appropriately than any other language) from the word Good. It is as though He were an eternal fountain that gushes forth abundantly nothing but what is good. And from that fountain flows forth all that is and is called good.”5

This is helpful because we are prone to think that idolatry does not exist today.  This is so because we consider idols as those things which we worship and we construe worship as restricted to prayers and hymns.  Luther’s conception of what it means to have a god challenges us to ask ourselves, from what do we “expect all good” and in what do we “take refuge in all distress”?  When we answer that question then we have identified our God(s).

Some expect money to be the fountain of all good, others, power.  Some run to drugs and alcohol in their distress, others, sex.  Some turn to things a bit more benign.  They turn to work for the source of their good and to family for refuge in all distress.  The question facing us is: when life gets hard, what do I turn to to save me?  Or in other words, what do I turn to in order to make me feel better?  When we ask it this way we find that idolatry is alive and well.  What’s worse, we may find that we are idolaters.

A Caution Against Dualism
While Luther helps us to identify our idols, it is just here that we must be careful to guard against any sort of dualism which might pit God’s creation against himself.  God gifted his creation to man to be enjoyed (cf. 1 Tim. 6:17). Luther is aware of this danger and is careful to protect his readers from any such false step.  He instructs us as to how we might find comfort in God alone without rejecting the world all together.

Receive from God, Not from Ourselves
First, we must ask if the things to which we turn for comfort are enjoyed within the boundaries set by God himself. They must be appropriate objects and enjoyed in appropriate degree. Food is an appropriate object of pleasure, recreational drugs are not. Food sufficient for the belly is an appropriate amount, gluttony is not. Only when we share in the pleasures God has given can we be said to have turned to God for our comfort, otherwise we have turned only to our own will and so to idols. “So no one should expect to take or give anything except what God has commanded. Then it may be acknowledged as God’s gift, and thanks may be rendered to Him for it, as this commandment requires. For this reason also, the ways we receive good gifts through creatures are not to be rejected. Nor should we arrogantly seek other ways and means than what God has commanded. For that would not be receiving from God, but seeking for ourselves.”6

This seems to be the very thing Paul had in mind when he wrote to the Ephesian church. Just before he equates greed with idolatry (5:5) he lists a number of sins which ought to be avoided. “But fornication and impurity of any kind, or greed, must not even be mentioned among you, as is proper among saints. Entirely out of place is obscene, silly, and vulgar talk” (5:3, 4a). Paul then contrasts these sins with virtue. We would expect Paul to contrast fornication and impurity with chastity. We would expect him to contrast greed with contentment, and obscene talk with pure speech. But that is not what he does. In place of all this he says, “but instead, let there be thanksgiving” (5:4b). He does this, I believe, because virtuous actions are pleasurable deeds that we can receive as God’s gifts and thereby render thanks unto him.  As a result, thanksgiving becomes the opposite of vice because thanksgiving may only be rendered to God on account of virtue. While sex in itself is a gift of God, fornication, i.e. sex outside of marriage, is not. We cannot thank God for that which he did not give. Such “gifts” are those gifts which we would give ourselves. Talk is another gift from the Lord. Conversation binds together the hearts of those who share in it and strengthens the bonds of community. Obscene talk, and vulgar speech, however, do not. They are not gifts but poisons. And so we cannot thank God for them because he did not give them.  They reside outside of his command. If we are to have no other God but the LORD then we may only enjoy such gifts as he gives, anything else is from idols; We may only enjoy those things for which we are able to thank him in all good conscience.  Thanks for anything else is sacrifice to idol gods.

Recognize the Giver in the Gift
Second, even those things which God approves are potential idols. It is not that finding refuge in family or work is inherently bad.  They are not idols in themselves.  On the contrary, they are part of God’s good creation and they are offered to us for our pleasure.  They are intended to offer comfort.  They become idols only when they are rent from the hand of God and enjoyed as ends in themselves.  But, if we remember that they are gifts, if we remember that God is the fountain of all good (cf. James 1:17), then these things are not idols but blessings; They are instruments of God’s goodness.  “Even though we experience much good from other people, whatever we receive by God’s command or arrangement is all received from God.  For our parents and all rulers and everyone else, with respect to his neighbor, have received from God the command that they should do us all kinds of good.  So we receive these blessings not from them, but through them, from God.  For creatures are only the hands, channels, and means by which God gives all things.”7

Conclusion: Worship Defends Against Idolatry
So long as those acts and objects to which we turn in distress are good in themselves, that is, they are approved channels of God’s blessing and in accordance with his command, then there is no reason why we should not enjoy them. Finding comfort in God does not necessitate hermetic isolation and mystic contemplation (though there may be a time for that too). It does, however, require appreciating them as gifts and it requires recognizing God in them. To ensure that we turn to God-through-them and not to the things in themselves, we must give thanks for them as blessings.

“Take care that you do not forget the LORD your God, by failing to keep his commandments, his ordinances, and his statutes, which I am commanding you today.  When you have eaten your fill and have built fine houses and live in them, and when your herds and flocks have multiplied, and your silver and gold is multiplied, and all that you have is multiplied, then do not exalt yourself, forgetting the LORD your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of slavery, who led you through the great and terrible wilderness, an arid wasteland with poisonous snakes and scorpions.  He made water flow for you from flint rock, and fed you in the wilderness with manna that your ancestors did not know, to humble you and to test you, and in the end to do you good.  Do not say to yourself, ‘My power and the might of my own and have gotten me this wealth.’  But remember the LORD your God, for it is he who gives you power to get wealth, so that he may confirm his covenant that he swore to your ancestors, as he is doing today”(Deu. 8:11-18; cf. 1 Tim. 4:3-5).

When we worship God for our gifts it strips those gifts of any pretense to deity. By recognizing them as gift we recognize them as dependent and therefore not as gods. It may then seem like a tautology to say that worshiping the true God defends against idolatry, but as it turns out it is a truth which bears repeating.  And so God says to us all, “You shall have no other gods before me.”

 

©M. Benfield, 2017


1. Martin Luther, Luther’s Large Catechism, (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 2010), 24, sec. 47.
2. Ibid, 22, sec. 31. Because his comments here lean heavily upon the right conception of God we may be tempted to disagree with Luther and protest that we are not what we believe, rather, we are what we love. We must be careful, however, to obey the eighth commandment as expounded by Luther in favor of Luther: “It is especially an excellent and noble virtue for someone always to explain things for his neighbor’s advantage and to put the best construction on all he may hear about his neighbor” (p. 70, sec. 289). We must “put the best construction” upon Luther, and while he most often speaks of the right conception of God he does not neglect the affect all together. Indeed, on occasion conception and affection seem for Luther to intertwine. “Instead, to ‘have’ Him [God] means that the heart takes hold of Him and clings to Him. To cling to Him with the heart is nothing else than to trust Him entirely.” (p.19, secs. 14, 15). Further, Luther was an Augustinian monk and would have been well acquainted with Augustine’s concept of well ordered love.
3. Ibid, 18, secs.1-3.
4. Ibid, 20, sec.17.
5. Ibid, 21, sec.25.
6. Ibid, 21, sec.27.
7. Ibid, 21, sec.26.